Periodontal Disease: Classification, Diagnosis, Risk Factors and Prevention (1993)
- There is good evidence to recommend personal toothbrushing and flossing to prevent gingivitis in adults.
- In children there is good evidence to support toothbrushing only; however, flossing is recommended to develop the necessary skills and establish a habit.
- There is weak scientific evidence to recommend oral hygiene for the prevention of periodontitis; however, brushing and flossing are strongly recommended to prevent inflammation and reduce the level of supragingival bacteria.
- There is fair evidence to recommend professional scaling and plaque removal in periodontally healthy individuals.
- There is good evidence to recommend professional scaling and plaque removal in periodontally health individuals.
- There is good evidence to recommend professional scaling every 3 to 4 months in patients with periodontitis or after periodontal surgery.
- There is also good evidence to recommend the use of chlorhexidine oral rinse as an adjunct to self-care in the prevention of gingivitis. Listerine is less effective than chlorhexidine. There are no long-term studies on the effectiveness of other antimicrobial rinses marketed for home use.
- Anticalculus dentifrices are recommended for people with high levels of calculus formation to reduce the accumulation of supragingival calculus.
- Antibiotics are not recommended for the prevention of gingivitis or periodontitis.
- There is fair evidence to recommend smoking cessation to reduce the risk of developing periodontitis.