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- Smokers and ex-smokers should be advised to eat foods rich in β-carotene (e.g., carrots) once daily on average. There is no evidence of the effectiveness of physician counselling in inducing dietary changes; however, there is fair evidence to support an increase in β-carotene intake to prevent lung cancer.
- There is good evidence to exclude cytologic screening of sputum from the periodic health examination of asymptomatic people. The 1979 recommendation of the task force remains unchanged.